脸书和照片墙告诉
BBC他们的应用程序的设计理念是让人们聚在一起,而从未想开发让人上瘾的产品。

Creating associations with internal triggers comes from building the
four components of a Hook — a trigger, action, variable reward, and
investment.

  platforms 平台

抄录:

  文章源于:BBC

When Barbra lands on Pinterest, not only does she see the image she
intended to find, but she’s also served a multitude of other glittering
objects. The images are associated with what she’s generally interested
in — namely, things to see during a trip to rural Pennsylvania — but
there are also some others that catch her eye. The exciting
juxtaposition of relevant and irrelevant, tantalizing and plain,
beautiful and common sets her brain’s dopamine system aflutter with the
promise of reward. Now she’s spending more time on the site, hunting for
the next wonderful thing to find. Before she knows it, she’s spent 45
minutes scrolling in search of her next hit.

  阿扎说他发明这个功能的目的不是为了勾住用户,但他表示,许多社交媒体公司的商业模式旨在让用户呆在线上的时间最大化。他说,这鼓励设计师们想出一些能吸引用户的技术诀窍。

Investment

  lure 诱惑,吸引

ca88手机版亚洲城,Superpower

  business model 商业模式

From “Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products” by Nir Eyal

  hook 勾住,吸引住

Trigger

ca88手机版亚洲城 1图片源于:BBC英语

原文地址

  addictive 使人上瘾的

The last phase of the Hook is where the user is asked to do bit of work.
This phase has two goals as far as the behavior engineer is concerned.
The first is to increase the odds that the user will make another pass
through the Hook when presented with the next trigger. Second, now that
the user’s brain is swimming in dopamine from the anticipation of reward
in the previous phase, it’s time to pay some bills. The investment
generally comes in the form of asking the user to give some combination
of time, data, effort, social capital, or money.

  阿扎·拉斯金发明了无限下拉滚动的功能,这个应用程序功能意味着你不需要点击进入下一个页面,你可以无限地下拉页面,但滚动的时间可能比必要的或健康的标准长得多。

原文链接:https://magenta.as/

  deliberately 故意地

Nir Eyal is the author of Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products
and blogs about the psychology of products at NirAndFar.com. For more
insights on using psychology to change behavior, join his newsletter and
receive a free workbook.

  Sandy Parakilas, who was a platform operations manager at Facebook
in 2011 and 2012, said there was definitely an awareness that Facebook
was habit-forming when he worked at the company.

A reader recently wrote to me, “If it can’t be used for evil, it’s not a
superpower.” He’s right. And under this definition, habit design is
indeed a super power. If used for good, habits can enhance people’s
lives with entertaining, and even healthful, routines. If used to
exploit, habits can turn into wasteful addictions.

  Aza says he did not intend to hook users with it but says the
business model of many social media companies is designed to maximise
user time online. He says this encourages designers to come up with
technological tricks that hook users.

Companies must understand the mechanics of habit formation to increase
engagement with their products and services and ultimately help users
create beneficial routines.

  桑迪·帕拉吉拉斯在 2011年和
2012年间担任脸书的平台运营经理,他说他在任期间,公司内部确实意识到脸书容易让用户上瘾。

Manufacturing Desire

  人文技术中心(Centre for Humane
Technology)的阿扎·拉斯金说,社交媒体公司故意在他们的应用程序中使用让人上瘾的技术,以吸引我们尽可能多地呆在他们的平台上。

Variable Reward

  Aza Raskin invented the endless scroll – the app feature that means
you don’t have to click to get to the next page and can keep scrolling
for far longer than maybe necessary or healthy.

I wrote Hooked: How to Build Habit-Forming Products to help others
understand what is at the heart of habit-forming technology. The book
highlights common patterns I observed in my career in the video gaming
and online advertising industries. While my model is generic enough for
a broad explanation of habit formation, I’ll focus on applications in
consumer internet here.

  Aza Raskin from the Centre for Humane Technology said social media
companies deliberately use addictive technology in their apps in order
to lure us in to spending as much time on their platforms as possible.

The trigger is the actuator of a behavior — the spark plug in the Hook
model. Triggers come in two types: external and internal. Habit-forming
technologies start by alerting users with external triggers like an
email, a link on a website, or the app icon on a phone. By cycling
continuously through these hooks, users begin to form associations with
internal triggers, which become attached to existing behaviors and
emotions. Soon users are internally triggered every time they feel a
certain way. The internal trigger becomes part of their routine
behavior, and the habit is formed.

  endless scroll 无限下拉滚动

The Gist

  实习编辑:朱子发 责任编辑:赵润琰

For example, suppose Barbra, a young woman in Pennsylvania, happens to
see a photo in her Facebook newsfeed taken by a family member from a
rural part of the state. It’s a lovely photo, and since she’s planning a
trip there with her brother Johnny, the trigger intrigues her.

  Facebook and Instagram have told the BBC that their apps are
designed to bring people together and that they never set out to create
addictive products.

But unlike a sales funnel, which has a set endpoint, the investment
phase isn’t about consumers opening up their wallets and moving on with
their day. The investment implies an action that improves the service
for the next go-around. Inviting friends, stating preferences, building
virtual assets, and learning to use new features are all commitments
that improve the service for the user. These investments can be
leveraged to make the trigger more engaging, the action easier, and the
reward more exciting with every pass through the Hook.

  habit-forming (活动)易成瘾的

But how do companies create a connection with the internal cues needed
to form habits? They manufacture desire. While fans of Mad Men are
familiar with how the ad industry once created consumer desire during
Madison Avenue’s golden era, those days are long gone. A multiscreen
world, with ad-wary consumers and a lack of ROI metrics, has rendered
Don Draper’s big-budget brainwashing useless to all but the biggest
brands. Instead, startups manufacture desire by guiding users through a
series of experiences designed to create habits. I call these
experiences Hooks, and the more often users run through them, the more
likely they are to self-trigger.

  美国硅谷的内部人士告诉 BBC
,社交媒体公司故意让用户沉迷于他们的产品以从中获取经济利益。

A company that forms strong user habits enjoys several benefits to its
bottom line. For one, it creates associations with “internal triggers”
in users’ minds. That is to say, users come to the site without any
external prompting. Instead of relying on expensive marketing or
worrying about differentiation, habit-forming companies get users to cue
themselves to action by attaching their services to the users’ daily
routines and emotions. A cemented habit is when users unconsciously
think, I’m bored, and Facebook instantly comes to mind. They think, I
wonder what’s going on in the world? and before rational thought kicks
in, Twitter is the answer. The first-to-mind solution wins.

  awareness 意识、认识

社交网络帮助人们建立习惯才是巨大利润的最本质的来源。

  词汇表

众多的社交网络让无数人上瘾,而有些人的上瘾程度堪比吸食海洛因。Facebook,Twitter等社交网络从它们建立的用户习惯中得到了无尽的经济价值,让人上瘾是手段,让人掏钱是目的。一开始,人们需要一定的诱因,外在的或者内在的,社交网络让无聊的生活有意思就是一个内在的诱因,属于潜意识和无理性的,当你打开应用时,它马上给你制造了期望,让你行动起来,上传图片得赞,评论有回应,制造各种奖励持续推动你参与。接下来让你掏钱的时间到了,因为你的期望值增加了,需要更进一步的刺激,而这些需要付费。最后如果你在社交网络中得到难以想象的快乐,那么你一定上瘾了。这可能也算是双赢,你得到了在别处没有的快乐,而社交网络得到了金钱。

The degree to which a company can utilize habit-forming technologies
will increasingly decide which products and services succeed or fail.

Variable schedules of reward are one of the most powerful tools that
companies use to hook users. Research shows that levels of
dopamine — the neurotransmitter that helps control the brain’s pleasure
center — surge when the brain is expecting a reward. Introducing
variability multiplies the effect, creating a frenzied hunting state,
activating the parts associated with wanting and desire. Although
classic examples include slot machines and lotteries, variable rewards
are prevalent in habit-forming technologies as well.

After the trigger comes the intended action. Here, companies leverage
two pulleys of human behavior: motivation and ability. To increase the
odds of a user taking the intended action, the behavior designer makes
the action as easy as possible, while simultaneously boosting the user’s
motivation. This phase of the Hook draws on the art and science of
usability design to ensure that the user acts the way the designer
intends.

Consumers must understand how habit-forming technology works to prevent
unwanted manipulation while still enjoying the benefits of these
innovations.

Using the example of Barbra, with a click on the interesting picture in
her newsfeed, she’s taken to a website she’s never been to before called
Pinterest. Once she’s done the intended action (in this case, clicking
on the photo), she’s dazzled by what she sees next.

How Facebook, Twitter, and Pinterest Hook Users

What separates Hooks from a plain vanilla feedback loop is their ability
to create wanting in the user. Feedback loops are all around us, but
predictable ones don’t create desire. The predictable response of your
fridge light turning on when you open the door doesn’t drive you to keep
opening it again and again. However, add some variability to the
mix — say, a different treat magically appears in your fridge every time
you open it — and voilà, intrigue is created. You’ll be opening that
door like a lab animal in a Skinner box.

As Barbra enjoys endlessly scrolling the Pinterest cornucopia, she
builds a desire to keep the things that delight her. By collecting
items, she’ll be giving the site data about her preferences. Soon she
will follow, pin, re-pin, and make other investments, which serve to
increase her ties to the site and prime her for future loops through the
Hook.

First-to-Mind Wins

We’re on the precipice of a new digital era. As infinite distractions
compete for our attention, companies are learning to master new tactics
to stay relevant in users’ minds and lives. Today, just amassing
millions of users is no longer good enough. Companies increasingly find
that their economic value is a function of the strength of the habits
they create. But as some companies are just waking up to this new
reality, others are already cashing in.

Habit-forming technology creates associations with “internal triggers,”
which cue users without the need for marketing, messaging, or other
external stimuli.

But, like it or not, habit-forming technology is already here. The fact
that we have greater access to the web through our various devices also
gives companies greater access to us. As companies combine this greater
access with the ability to collect and process our data at higher speeds
than ever before, we’re faced with a future where everything becomes
more addictive. This trinity of access, data, and speed creates new
opportunities for habit-forming technologies to hook users. Companies
need to know how to harness the power of Hooks to improve people’s
lives, while consumers need to understand the mechanics of behavior
engineering to protect themselves from unwanted manipulation.

ca88手机版亚洲城 2

Action

The tactics that the best digital brands use to stay relevant in users’
minds and lives.

Type the name of almost any successful consumer web company into your
search bar and add the word “addict” after it. Go ahead, I’ll wait. Try
“Facebook addict” or “Twitter addict” or even “Pinterest addict,” and
you’ll soon get a slew of results from hooked users and observers
deriding the narcotic-like properties of these sites. How is it that
these companies, producing little more than bits of code displayed on a
screen, can seemingly control users’ minds? Why are these sites so
addictive, and what does their power mean for the future of the web?

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